Dental Disease

What are the common dental disease in the dental department?

In this article we are going to tell you some common Dental disease. This article will be helpful for your information about dental disease

1. Caries

Caries is a very common dental hard tissue disease . This disease Caries is an oral disease with a long history. Ancient Chinese, Assyrians and Babylonians all believed that dental caries was caused by teeth being corroded by insects. This was a misunderstanding limited to the conditions at the time. From the 2nd century BC to modern times, there have been many theories on the understanding of dental caries, including chemical bacteria theory, proteolysis theory, proteolysis-chelation theory, glycogen theory , quadruple factor theory, etc. Currently, the most recognized one is the four-factor theory. It points out that the onset of dental caries is related to four major factors: bacteria, food, host and time. According to the location on the tooth where the caries occurs, it can be divided into proximal caries and pit and fissure caries.

According to the depth of the caries cavity, it is divided into: shallow caries, medium caries and deep caries .

1. Shallow caries

Shallow caries is named because the cavity is shallow. Treatment is relatively simple. You only need to remove the decayed and infected materials in the cavity, and then fill it with dental filling materials.

2. Medium caries

Compared with shallow caries, medium caries and deep caries are deeper and reach the dentin layer, so the treatment is slightly more complicated. After removing the decayed and infected materials in the cavity, it is necessary to first pad it to isolate the uncomfortable reaction caused by external cold and heat conduction to the dental nerve , and then fill it with filling material.

3. Deep caries

Eating sweets between meals is the most likely cause of tooth decay. The frequency of eating sweets is more important to the occurrence of dental caries than the amount of sweets eaten. The longer the sweets stay in the mouth, the greater the possibility of dental caries. Cariogenic power: Liquid is smaller than solid, non-viscous is smaller than viscous.

Dental disease
Dental disease

2. Wedge-shaped defect

A depressed defect occurs in the neck of the tooth, or a deep groove appears on the tooth. These defects resemble a wedge shape and are therefore called wedge defects. These defects are common in the premolars or front teeth. The reasons for wedge-shaped defects can be summarized as follows:

1. The premolars and anterior teeth are located in the protruding area of ​​the dental arch and are easily damaged. If worn by long-term brushing, wedge-shaped defects can be formed.

2. Related to corrosion by acidic substances.

3. It is related to the structure of the tooth neck. Premolars are located in the protruding area of ​​the dental arch, so they are more seriously damaged when brushing. Acidic exudates in the gingival sulcus , acidic secretions from labial and buccal glands, poor adjacency between enamel and cementum, etc. are the most likely to cause dentin exposure and cause wedge-shaped damage .

Wedge-shaped defects are often treated with filling methods. When symptoms of pulpitis occur in severe wedge-shaped defects , pulp treatment is required before filling the defect. The prevention of wedge-shaped defects is to change the brushing method, correct lateral brushing, and promote Pap brushing method . It is advisable to choose a toothbrush with moderately hard bristles.

Wedge-shaped defects
Wedge-shaped defects

3. Tooth sensitivity

Tooth hypersensitivity is commonly known as “inverted teeth”. Teeth prone to allergies should not be exposed to cold, hot, sour, or sweet foods; in severe allergies, hard foods cannot be chewed. A hypersensitive tooth can be one tooth or multiple teeth, a molar on one side, or teeth on both sides. It usually occurs on the occlusal surface of the molars, the cervical portion of the premolars or anterior teeth, and the incisal edges of the lower anterior teeth. The occurrence of occlusal surface and incisal edge allergies is related to chewing and cutting food; tooth neck sensitivity is related to irritation from brushing.

The reasons for the occurrence of occlusal surface allergy are: ① It is related to chewing habits. The habit of chewing food on one side causes more tooth wear on that side. ② It is related to the type of diet. For example, you like to eat harder foods, such as fried, roasted, fried and other foods.

Treatment for tooth sensitivity is call tooth desensitization therapy . Drugs with desensitizing effects include sodium fluoride glycerin solution , silver nitrate, thymol, formaldehyde-cresol (FC), etc. There are many types of toothpastes in the market, such as desensitizing toothpaste or anti-acid toothpaste. Foods with desensitizing effects in family life include raw garlic, raw tea leaves, raw walnut peels, etc. Using the above desensitizing drugs or foods is convenient, economical and effective.

Dental disease
Dental disease

4. Tetracycline teeth

Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics and have been widely use clinically. In 1950, it was discover that tetracyclines could stain teeth and lead to enamel hypoplasia . When children’s teeth are in the mineralization stage of growth and development, tetracycline molecules can combine with calcium in the dental tissue to form extremely stable chelates, which are deposit in the dental tissue and cause tooth coloring. Because the surface area of ​​hydroxyapatite crystals is much greater in dentin than in enamel, staining occurs primarily in dentin. The stained teeth initially appear yellow, then fluoresce yellow when exposed to sunlight, and then gradually deepen in color.

Due to the catalytic effect of sunlight, the labial surface of the incisors first darkens and then remains yellow for a longer period of time. Different types of tetracycline drugs can stain teeth in different colors. For example, demeclocycline (norchlorotoxin ) makes teeth yellow, chlortetracycline makes teeth gray-brown, and oxytetracycline makes teeth light yellow. Therefore, before the permanent teeth are replace and the teeth are in the growth and calcification stage, the use of tetracycline and oxytetracycline drugs should be avoide.

Dental disease
Dental disease

5. Dental fluorosis

Also known as spot glaze, it is related to excessive fluoride content in drinking water. It seriously affects health and appearance, and causes psychological burden and harm to patients.

Fluoride itself has a dual effect on teeth. If the fluoride content in drinking water is too high, it will cause dental fluorosis, and if it is too low, it will cause dental caries. When the fluoride content of drinking water is 1×10-6, it can prevent dental caries without causing dental fluorosis.

Dental disease
Dental disease

6. Pulpitis

Pulpitis is mostly cause by infection. The main source of infection comes from deep caries. Its main symptom is unbearable pain. Cold, hot, sour, and sweet can stimulate and worsen the pain.

Dental disease
Dental disease

7. Periapical disease

Periapical disease refers to inflammatory lesions of the tissues surrounding the root tips. Mostly caused by secondary dental pulp disease. In addition, excessively deep periodontal pockets can also cause apical periodontitis. Clinically, it is generally divide into two categories : acute apical periodontitis and chronic apical periodontitis. Teeth often present with dead pulp, discoloration, insensitivity to temperature stimulation, persistent dull pain, obvious percussion pain, chewing pain, and a feeling of floating or loose teeth. The lymph nodes in the submandibular area are swallow and tender, systemic symptoms may include fever, and dental X-rays show periapical bone destruction .

8. Periodontal tissue diseases

Periodontal tissue is the supporting tissue of teeth, including gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. It includes two categories: gingivitis and periodontitis .

1. Gingivitis (marginal gingivitis): Gingivitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs at the gum margin and gingival papilla, and can be divide into two categories: gingivitis and gingival hypertrophy. Gingivitis is mostly cause by inadequate tooth cleaning. It is characterize by bleeding gums when brushing or chewing food , red or dark red gingival margins, edema and gloss, and in a few cases spontaneous bleeding or bad breath. The main symptoms of gingival hypertrophy are thickening and enlargement of the gingival margin and gingival papilla.

2. Periodontal disease : generally developed from gingivitis. a. Manifested as gingival inflammatory lesions, the main clinical manifestations are redness of the gums and bleeding during probing. b. Periodontal pockets, where the gums and root surfaces lose their attachment, separate and form a pocket. c. Absorption and destruction of alveolar bone. d. Loosening and shifting of teeth. The above four major symptoms are typical symptoms of periodontal disease. It is what people often talk about in daily life: loose teeth, bleeding gums, tartar adhesion, bad breath, etc. There are many factors that cause periodontal disease. Poor general health, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiency are all related to the onset of periodontal disease. The soft plaque, plaque (bacteria) and calculus on the tooth surface are the main causes of periodontal disease. reason.

Periodontal disease is one of the major oral diseases, with a high prevalence worldwide, and its prevalence in my country is even higher than that of caries. As my country enters an aging society, periodontal disease, especially periodontitis, will become a prominent health care issue. Among the ten standards for healthy people proposed by the World Health Organization , item 8 is “no cavities in teeth, no pain, and no bleeding gums.” To meet this standard, our country still has a big gap.

Dental disease
Dental disease

9. Food impaction

In daily life, many people always find some food easily stuck between their teeth after eating. Which makes them feel very uncomfortable and must be pick out with toothpicks. Especially middle-aged and elderly people, after almost every meal All have to pick their teeth. Is stuff tooth a disease? Is it good to use a toothpick?

Food impaction cannot be regard as a disease, but is a manifestation of uncoordinated oral function and poor occlusal relationship, and is also a main cause of gingivitis. However, it is very harmful to the teeth. It is often easy for the teeth to shift , loosen or fall out due to long-term blockage. Therefore, they should not be ignore and should seek medical treatment in time to relieve the pain and harm caused by impaction.

Impaction is cause by food being squeeze into the gap between teeth by strong chewing pressure. And it is mostly made of tough substances such as vegetable fiber or lean meat fiber, which can produce a lot of squeezing force, making people feel very uncomfortable and crowd. It’s tight and difficult to take out. You have to use toothpicks and other tools to pick it out slowly. Because of its high pressure, long-term impaction and compression often cause damage and absorption of the alveolar bone, gradually exposing the tooth root and causing chronic inflammation.

After middle age

In a normal person’s mouth, the teeth are arrange neatly and the teeth are in close contact with each other, so tooth jams will not occur. After middle age, due to too much tooth wear , constant physiological eruption and displacement, or due to various diseases, the contact points of the teeth are loose, and foreign bodies are easily embedd; in some cases, due to tooth wear, the bite pressure is inconsistent. Balance, when chewing, the teeth are tilted in the direction of stronger pressure, which makes the contact between the teeth not good. The food is press between the teeth and cannot come out, and causes impaction pressure. This is the most common impaction factor and the most harmful. It should be Seek medical treatment promptly.

In the past, there were not many clinical solutions to food impaction. Nowadays, with the development of domestic technology, precision dental techniques such as inlays and restorative crowns can help you solve it easily.

10. Cracked teeth

Cracked teeth
Cracked teeth

The invisible killer of teeth is the third most common disease in dentistry. Cracked teeth, also known as incomplete tooth cracks or micro-cracks, are often difficult to detect. Cracks penetrate deep into the tooth, causing tooth sensitivity and pain, which can eventually lead to tooth cracking and tooth loss. Occlusal trauma is a predisposing factor and should be treat early and repaired with a crown.

11. Teeth grinding at night

Some teenagers will make a “rattling” teeth grinding sound when sleeping at night, which is commonly know as “night grinding”. It is very harmful and can cause tooth wear and pain. Long-term “night grinding” may also damage periodontal tissue, causing gum recession and loosening and shifting of teeth. Patients who grind their teeth at night often feel fatigue or pain in the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. Mouth pads can play a certain protective role for patients with night grinding, but the most fundamental thing is to treat the cause.

There are many reasons for bruxing at night, among which psychological factors and local factors play an important role. Emotional stress is the most common cause of bruxing at night. When fear, anger, hostility, resistance and other emotional factors are difficult to express in time due to various reasons, they will be hidden in the subconscious and express periodically in various ways. Bruxism is one of the manifestations. Therefore, eliminating emotional tension and forming an optimistic and open-minded attitude can effectively prevent the occurrence of “bruxism”. In addition, systemic diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases may also be factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism. Actively preventing and treating these primary diseases is the key to treating “night grinding”.

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