pharynx and larynx

Common diseases of pharynx and larynx

In this article we will discus about common diseases and symptoms of the pharynx and larynx

common diseases and symptoms of the pharynx

1. Pharyngitis:


It is an inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa and submucosal tissue. It is divided into acute and chronic pharyngitis. This is mainly caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, influenza bacilli and viruses. In addition, low human resistance (immunity) is the main internal cause.

Acute pharyngitis: It is an acute inflammation that affects the pharyngeal mucosa and submucosal tissues. The main symptoms are dryness and burning of the throat at the beginning, followed by pain. The pain in the throat is often more obvious when swallowing saliva than when eating. It can be accompanied by fever, headache, loss of appetite and sore limbs. When it invades the throat, it can be accompanied by hoarseness and coughing.

Chronic pharyngitis: mainly chronic inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa. Diffuse inflammation is often part of chronic catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, often accompanied by inflammation of pharyngeal lymphoid tissue. It is a common disease, frequently-occurring disease, relatively stubborn and recurring, and is more common in middle-aged people. The main symptoms are throat discomfort, dryness, itching, swelling, excessive secretions and burning pain, easy retching, foreign body sensation, inability to spit out, and inability to swallow.

2. Tonsillitis:

Refers to inflammation of the tonsils (also called tonsillitis), usually refers to inflammation of the palatal tonsils, which can be divided into acute and chronic tonsillitis. The main sources of disease are still viruses, such as adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, etc. In addition, bacteria including Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, Diphtheria, Staphylococcus, and Diphtheria pneumonia can also cause it. The inflammation. Acute tonsillitis is contagious; chronic tonsillitis often presents with multiple and repeated acute attacks, such as high fever, severe sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and general fatigue.

Pharyngitis is mainly inflammation of the mucosa of the pharyngeal wall; tonsillitis is mainly inflammation of the mucosa, crypts, parenchyma or follicles of the tonsils. The two often exist at the same time and influence each other.

3. Angina:

It is an acute inflammation that occurs in the isthmus, a special type of pharyngitis. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses and other germs and is contagious. Symptoms include dry throat, foreign body sensation, herpes, ulcers, etc., which are similar to symptoms of acute tonsillitis.

4. Pharyngeal ulcer: It is a localized defect and ulceration of the surface tissue of the pharyngeal mucosa. The surface is often covered with pus, necrotic tissue or scab, and scars appear after incomplete recovery. Most of them are caused by pharyngitis that has not healed for a long time.

Common throat diseases and symptoms:

1. Epiglottitis:


Refers to the swelling of the epiglottis when the mucosal tissue on the cartilage at the entrance of the larynx is infect, blocking the respiratory tract. Epiglottitis is a potentially fatal infection that affects children aged 2 to 6 years old and is often cause by Haemophilus influenzae. Symptoms are often acute and explosive. Previously healthy people suddenly develop sore throat, hoarseness, shortness of breath and high fever, and rapidly develop respiratory distress characterized by dysphagia, salivation, dyspnea, tachypnea and inspiratory wheezing.

2. Laryngitis:

It is an inflammation of the throat mucosa cause by general bacterial infection. Depending on the degree of the disease, it can be divide into chronic simple laryngitis (the laryngeal mucosa and submucosal tissue is congested, red and swollen, with some lymphocyte infiltration, and the basement membrane is widened and loosened); chronic hypertrophic laryngitis (the laryngeal mucosal epithelium is thickened) , with squamous epithelial metaplasia and keratinization, significant proliferation of submucosal fibrous tissue, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells); chronic atrophic laryngitis (the laryngeal mucosa is atrophic and thin, dry and shiny, the vocal cords are thinned, and the tension is weakened) .Laryngeal submucosal fibrous tissue hyperplasia, mucosal atrophy and gland atrophy and disappearance).

Vocal cord nodules are a type of chronic laryngitis. At first, the nodules are soft and red, with blood vessels dilated and congested, and interstitial edema. Later, fibrosis and hyaline degeneration occur, and the surface epithelial spinous layer is thicken and keratinized. Thus it becomes solid and pale.

3. Laryngeal obstruction:

It is a group of syndromes where lesions in the larynx or adjacent organs narrow the airway in the larynx, causing difficulty in breathing. Acute laryngeal obstruction caused by acute inflammation, laryngeal foreign body, laryngeal trauma, allergic edema, bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, etc.; caused by sequelae of laryngeal trauma, cicatricial hyperplasia caused by iatrogenic surgery, and compression of neck lesions etc. resulting in chronic laryngeal obstruction.

The development and subsequent effects of acute and chronic diseases of the pharynx and larynx. If the metabolism of human tissue cells cannot be adjust and restored in time, it will basically cause damage to the mucosal epithelial cells and submucosa-related tissues (muscles, blood vessels, nerves, lymphocytes) in the pharynx and larynx-related parts. etc.) Cell damage, lesions, and necrosis will cause persistent and repeat effects on various subsequent physiological functions of the pharynx and larynx (the pharynx and larynx are at extremely high risk of being invade by external pathogenic microorganisms).

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